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【干货分享】托福听力跨学科备考建议

来源:北京朗阁培训中心发布时间:2017-11-02

  托福考试的一大特色就是学科考查,而且在阅读、听力、口语、写作这四项单科中都会涉及到。就托福听力的学科考查而言,ETS官方给出的分类是Arts、Life science、Physical science、Social science这四大个模块。所以备考可以按照这样子的大模块逐个击破。今天小编就为大家支几招,让大家备考时有所准备。

  一、 本身学科之间大范围小范围

  跨学科知识考查其实有很多种,在TPO文章中,纯学科的内容相对来说还是比较少的,总会有一些学科交叉比如心理学文章讲的是某种动物是否有认知能力等。所以在备考过程中注意一下跨学科的科学知识整理以及文章中的常考内容梳理。对于托福听力的备考,每个lecture本身的学科知识要大概了解一些,比如说生物类常考的动物、动物名称、动物行为、动物外形等词汇,艺术部分比如音乐相关的乐器,音调,旋律,歌剧等等内容,天文学部分比如星系,光谱,火星上是否有一些生命迹象存在,以及天文学在航海等领域的实际研究。

  小编建议:

  考生在进行备考过程中注意大范围学科和具体学科之间的结合,在刷题的过程中不要只局限于文章中的开头的学科名称,还要注意文章的实际内容的表述。

  比如,TPO14Lecture4 考古学,而内容本身是在讲passage grave 中sound的一些effects,包括echo、standing wave、resonance,主旨题的答案是B. The sound effects that Neolithic people could experience in passage graves,很难让人想象到一篇考古学的文章中会考到这样跟声音有关的内容。

  按照学科联系,以及跨学科的备考方式,这篇文章完成以后,考生就应该结合一下比如说TPO7Lecture2的内容,讲了ultrasound超声波以及bat蝙蝠是怎么进行echolocation回声定位的。当然,同时也可以了解一下横波、纵波等知识,在TPO刷题过程中需要有一些对应,这样对于一系列的内容备考有一定的总结,也对于知识点的考查会更有系统、更加有条理。

  二、跨学科备考

  从考生角度来说,其实也可以换种角度来反思,也就是在托福备考中,是否也可以运用一下跨学科备考,想必是可以的。在托福听力的备考中,同时也可以思考一下听力和其他学科之间的关系。

  在托福听力中,经常会考得到实验研究的内容,小细节可能是考到实验研究的结果,也有可能考到老师对于实验研究的态度等等,当然,也有部分情况下是考查实验研究的过程。结合这部分的内容,考生可以再审视一下口语第六题。

  我们来看一个真题,TPO25口语task6的听力材料内容

  Rocks near the Earth’s surface are directly exposed to elements in the environment such as air and water, and also to conditions such as temperature change as well as to living organism. And this exposure to the environment can actually cause even huge rocks to break into smaller pieces. This process is called weathering. Let’s talk about a couple ways weathering occurs.

  First of all, rocks are often exposed to water. In cold wet environments rocks can break due to water freezing inside of them. How does this happen? Well, as I am sure you know, when water freezes it expands and over time this can lead to weathering.

  Um, imagine a rock with a small opening or crack in it. It rains and water gets into the crack and stays there. Then, at night, the temperature drops and water inside the crack freezes. This growing, expanding ice pushes outward on either side of the crack causing it to get slightly bigger. When this happens again and again, the crack becomes larger and eventually pieces of the rock break off.

  OK, weathering can also be caused by plants, by a plant growth. If a plant seed gets blown into the crack of a rock, it may take root. And its root will grow down into the rock. The plant’s roots can cause the rock to break down, uh, fracture. You may have seen this with large trees growing on top of a rock, a great example of this. Usually there’s enough dirt in a crack of a rock or on top of a rock to allow a tree to start growing there. As the tree grows over the years, the tree’s roots extend downward into the crack and crevasses of the rock in search of water and nutrients. Over time, the roots get bigger and grow deeper, widening and enlarging the cracks, causing the rock to break apart.

  首先这段lecture讲了一个process called weathering,然后进行ways论述1. rocks are often exposed to water 2. It rains and water gets into the crack and stays there. Then, at night, the temperature drops and water inside the crack freezes. When this happens again and again, the crack becomes larger and eventually pieces of the rock break off 3.weathering can also be caused by plants As the tree grows over the years, the tree’s roots extend downward into the crack and crevasses of the rock in search of water and nutrients. Over time, the roots get bigger and grow deeper, widening and enlarging the cracks, causing the rock to break apart.

  从备考角度来说,其实大多数学生都是知道“水滴石穿”这个学科知识。在这段话中差不多就是讲了这个水滴石穿的过程。但是要按照口语的答题内容完美的回答还是有些困难的,那么首先需要知道的是geology的一些学科词汇。比如说crack, freeze, crevasse, rock, nutrients 这些词。

  从跨学科来讲,这篇看似是地质学的内容选段也出现了生物学部分的植物模块,提到了植物的根部在watering process的作用。考生结合这两个学科一起备考,想必事半功倍。

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