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1997年1月托福全真试题

来源:发布时间:2007-05-14

97 年01月 托福听力文字

Part A
1. A: I invited your mother to lunch yesterday. But she said she didn’t have any free time.
B: Yeah. She’s just got a new job.
What does the man mean?

2. A: The sound of all that traffic is driving me out of my mind.
B:It is bad.But the highway will reopen tomorrow. Then we won’t have all those cars passing by any more.
What does the woman imply?

3. A: I don’t understand why I received such a low grade on my term paper.
B: You should make an appointment with the professor to discuss it.
What does the woman suggest the man do?

4. A: I’m going to the vegetable stand today. Can I pick up anything for you?
B: No, thanks. I just came back from the market myself.
What does the woman mean?

5. A: I’ve been running a mile every afternoon for the past month. But I still haven’t
been able to lose more than a pound or two. I wander if this worth it.
B: Oh, don’t give up now. It always seems hard when you just starting out.
What does the woman mean?

6. A: We’re having a part at our house on the weekend of the thirtieth. Would you like to join us?
B: That sounds like a lot of fun. But I’ll need to check my calendar first.
What does the man imply?

7. A: Just one person in the whole class got an A on the test. You!
B: All right!
What does the woman mean?

8. A: Would you like to go to the movies with us tonight?
B: To the movies? Tonight’s the biggest concert of the year.
What does the man mean?

9. A: Did you pick up my books form Ron’s house?
B: Sorry. It slipped my mind.
What does the man mean?

10. A: Could you lend me your biology notes?
B: Do you think you’ll be able to make out my handwriting?
What does the woman imply about the notes?

11. A: I just saw an ad on television that said men’s suits were on sale today and tomorrow at Conrad’s Men’s Wear.
B: Great! That’s just what I’ve been waiting for.
What will the man probably do?

12. A: John, I’m sorry. But I forgot to bring your tape player back.
B: Well, as long as I get it by Friday.
What does the man mean?

13. A: I’m way behind in my letter writing. I’ve got to get started.
B: Who’s got time to write letters? Exams are coming up, remember?
What does the man imply the woman should do?

14. A: Hi, Ann. Where are you rushing off to?
B: I’m on my way to pick up the text for American history. I’m in shock. It’s going to
be 65 bucks.
What does the woman mean?

15. A: Is Luis going to join us for a short break?
B: Yes, if she can tear herself away from her studies.
What does the woman imply about Luis?

16. A: Here are two empty seats.
B: Don’t you think these are too closed to the movie screen?
What does the woman imply they should do?

17. A: I found a perfect book bag but I’m about 20 dollars short.
B: Don’t look at me. I don’t get paid for another week.
What does the man imply?

18. A: I’m bored with the same food all the time. Let’s try something different Saturday night.
B: How about an Italian place.
What does the man suggest they do?

19. A: What we need is a roommate who is neat and considerate.
B: Let’s write that in the ad: neatness and consideration a must.
What do the speakers hope to do?

20. A: These watches are outrageously expensive.
B: You think they are bad? You should see the ones in the jewelry store.
What does the woman imply?

21. A: Sue, would you like to be my lab partner with the next experiment?
B: Sure. I just can’t believe you still want to work with me after I messed up last time.
What does the man mean?

22. A: Which game do you think is more difficult to learn, chess or bridge?
B: They are like apples and oranges.
What does the man mean?

23. A: I didn’t see your fellowship announced with the others.
B: The dean’s still waiting on it. He wants to see my grades from this semester first.
What does the woman mean?

24. A: What on earth did you do to your eyes?
B: Oh, nothing. It looks a lot worse than it feels.
What does the man mean?

25. A: I decided to apply to grad school in engineering for next year.
B: More school? I’m going into business for myself.
What does the man plan to do?

26. A: My shoulder’s been hurting for a couple of weeks now ever since I moved that heavy desk by myself.
B: If it hasn’t gotten better by now, you should have it looked at.
What does the woman mean?

27. A: I’m calling to check on the status of my TV.
B: Well, the new parts have just come in so it should be ready by Friday.
What will the man probably do?

28. A: I didn’t know you play the clarinet. You really sounded good.
B: Oh, could you hear me? I was practicing because, well, band try out next week.
What does the man imply?

29. A: Dan’s talking about getting a cat from one of his relatives.
B: Yeah. I hear his apartment building is about to lift the ban on pets.
What does the woman mean?

30. A: The concert pianist was fantastic!
B: And how!
What does the man mean?

Part B
Questions 31-33 Listen to a conversation between two friends attending a university in
the United States.
Hi, Frank. What are you up to? Is that really a French grammar book?
Well, I’m trying to teach myself some French. When I go to Montreal next semester, I
don’t want to sound like just another tourist. Most of the people there are bilingual.
Leave Boston to go to Montreal? I didn’t know this university had a program in
Canada.
It doesn’t. I’m planning to take a short leave of absence from school, so I can go there on my own.
What’s the reason for this sudden interest in Canada?
Well, actually I’ve been thinking about going for some time now. I know someone there who’s been wanting me to visit.
A relative?
An old friend of my uncle’s runs a chemical engineering department there. So, I’m hoping he can help me enroll in some interesting courses.
If you want those credits transferred back here later on, you’d better arrange for it before you leave. Don’t forget what happened to Susan after she came back from Rome.
Yeah, but her situation was different. I already have all the credits I need to graduate.
So you’ll be taking courses just for the sake of learning.
That will be a nice change of pace, won’t it?
31. What was Frank doing at the beginning of the conversation?

32. What does the woman suggest that Frank do?

33. What does Frank say about his academic status?

Questions 34-38 Listen as a student asks a question in a physics lecture.
It’s important that you all understand that quartz heaters operate on a totally different principle than common convection heaters. Yes?
Could you give us an example of a convection heater?
Ok. But first you tell me what convection means?
Um, well, you said in the last class, I think, that convection is the transference of heat by a liquid or a gas.
Right, A heater is using convection when it warms the air in a room. And the air in turn warms the people and objects in the room. A hot-water radiator, a stove and a forced air furnace are all convection heaters. A quartz heater on the other hand, heats the objects and people in a room without heating the air. It does this by producing radiation heat that travels like light waves. When the quartz crystal in a heater vibrates at a particular frequency, its energy is turned into infrared radiation. The radiation is then directed at objects by means of a reflector. If that’s clear, let’s move on to how room design can affect heating efficiency.
34. What is the main topic of the discussion?

35. What had the instructor probably been discussing in the previous class?

36. What does the instructor ask the student?

37. According to the instructor, how was the quartz heater different from other types of heaters?

38. What is the purpose of a reflector on a quartz heater?

Part C
Questions 39-42 Listen to university official talk about a job placement office.
As a result of rising university costs, many students are finding it necessary to take on part-time job. To make finding those jobs easier, the placement services put together a listing of what’s available locally. For some students, these part-time jobs could lead to full time work after graduation, as they may offer experience in their own field, be that finance, marketing or even management. For example, National Saving Bank offers a work on a half time basis. That’s twenty hours a week. Retail stores and restaurants have positions requiring fewer hours. Even less time is expected of those providing child-care. We have a number of families registered with us who were looking for baby sitters for as few as 4 hours a week. For students who prefer outdoor work, there are seasonal positions right on campus, working with the gardening and landscaping teams.
These often require the most time and are the least flexible in terms of scheduling. To see a complete list of these and other available jobs, including the salary offered and the hours required, stop by our office. Oh, and be sure to bring a resume with you. When you find something that interests you, we’ll put you in touch with the person offering it. In addition, our counselors will give you hints about successful interviewing.
39. What is the purpose of the talk?

40. What should students bring with them to the office?

41. What will the counselors at the office help students do?

42. What do all of the jobs have in common?

Questions 43-46 Listen to a professor talking about United States art history.
In this century, photographs have been really important for teaching art history. I’ll show you what I mean in a moment with some photographs taken by Peter and Paul Julie. The work of these two photographers has been a very useful source for studying the art produced in the United States from 1896 to the present. Peter and Paul Julie were not artists. But they were a regular part of the New York art theme. They took over a hundred thousand photographs which document the lives and work of thousands of artists. Peter Julie is known as a pioneer in this field of art photography. Georgia O’keefe and other famous artists sought him out to take pictures of their work. His specialty was photographing paintings. His son Paul photographed sculptures.
Some of their most important photos are the ones of works of art that have since been destroyed. One example is a photo that we’ll look at today. Would someone get the lights please? Thanks. This slide is from a photograph of a painting by Edward Hopper called Corn Belt city. The painting was exhibited only two or three times before it was destroyed in a fire. Without the Julie photograph, no visual record of the work would exist.
Although the Julies mostly photographed the work of painters and sculptors, they also occasionally photographed architectural subjects. They did quite a few photos of buildings by John Russell Pope. And we’re going to look at one of those next.
43. What does the professor mainly discuss?

44. What did Peter Julie do for Georgia O’keefe?

45. According to the professor, what was the specialty of Peter Julie’s son, Paul?

46. Why does the professor mention the photograph of the painting Corn Belt city?

Questions 47-50 Listen to part of radio report about a scientific advance.
Do you know that vegetables can be tricked into growing in climates they are not accustomed to? Cool climates vegetables like asparagus are now able to be grown in places as hot as Hawaii. In Hawaii, marine engineers have been able to actually convince such vegetables that they are living in cooler climates. That way they grow faster and taste better. What these engineers have been using is very simply cold seawater.
How do they use it? They placed pipes in the soil and the cold water flowing through them cools the earth. This stimulates plant growth and enables gardeners in tropical climates to grow crops from cooler climates. Also, some of these pipes are exposed to the air and they condense moisture and thus irrigate the gardens. What is especially appealing about this process is that nothing damaging to the natural environment is being used.
Another innovative use for cold ocean water is to cool buildings. Engineers believe that, for example, the entire west coast of the United States could be air-conditioned using seawater. We’ll be back to discuss that possibility after this commercial message.
47. What is the report mainly about?

48. What does the new system enable farmers to do?

49. How were the pipes used in Hawaii?

50. Why does the speaker mention air-conditioning?

1997年1月托福阅读全真试题

Question 1-8

Both the number and the percentage of people in the
United States involved in nonagricultural pursuits expanded
rapidly during the half century following the Civil War, with
some of the most dramatic increases occurring in the domains
of transportation, manufacturing, and trade and distribution.
The development of the railroad and telegraph systems during
the middle third of the nineteenth century led to significant
improvements in the speed, volume, and regularity of shipments
and communications, making possible a fundamental
transformation in the production and distribution of goods.

In agriculture, the transformation was marked by the
emergence of the grain elevators, the cotton presses, the
warehouses, and the commodity exchanges that seemed to so
many of the nation's farmers the visible sign of a vast conspiracy
against them. In manufacturing, the transformation was
marked by the emergence of a "new factory system" in which
plants became larger, more complex, and more systematically
organized and managed. And in distribution, the transformation
was marked by the emergence of the jobber, the wholesaler,
and the mass retailer. These changes radically altered
the nature of work during the half century between 1870 and
1920.

To be sure, there were still small workshops, where
skilled craftspeople manufactured products ranging from news-
papers to cabinets to plumbing fixtures. There were the sweatshops
in city tenements, where groups of men and women in
household settings manufactured clothing or cigars on a piece-
work basis. And there were factories in occupations such as
metalwork where individual contractors presided over what
were essentially handicraft proprietorships that coexisted within
a single buildings. But as the number of wage earners in
manufacturing rose from 2.7 million in 1880 to 4.5 million in 1900 to 8.4 million in 1920, the number of huge plants like the Baldwin Locomotive Works in Philadelphia burgeoned, as
did the size of the average plant. (The Baldwin Works had 600
employees in 1855, 3,000 in 1875, and 8,000 in 1900.) By
1920, at least in the northeastern United States where most of
the nation's manufacturing wage earners were concentrated,
three-quarters of those worked in factories with more than 100
employees and 30 percent worked in factories with more than
1,000 employees.

1. The word "domains" in line 3 is closest in meaning to

(A) fields
(B) locations
(C) organizations
(D) occupations

2. What can be inferred from the passage about the agricultural sector of the economy after the Civil War?

(A) New technological developments had little effect on farmers.
(B) The percentage of the total population working in agriculture declined.
(C) Many farms destroyed in the war were rebuilt after the war.
(D) Farmers achieved new prosperity because of better rural transportation.

3. The word "fundamental" in line 7 is closest in meaning to

(A) possible
(B) basic
(C) gradual
(D) unique

4. Which of the following was NOT mentioned as part of the "new factory system?"

(A) A change in the organization of factories.
(B) A growth in the complexity of factories.
(C) An increase in the size of factories.
(D) An increase in the cost of manufacturing industrial products.

5. Which of the following statements about manufacturing before 1870 can be inferred from the passage?

(A) Most manufacturing activity was highly organized.
(B) Most manufacturing occurred in relatively small plants.
(C) The most commonly manufactured goods were cotton presses.
(D) Manufacturing and agriculture each made up about half of the nation's economy.

6. The word "skilled" in line 16 is closest in meaning to

(A) hardworking
(B) expert
(C) well-paid
(D) industrial

7. The word "presided over" in line 20 are closest in meaning to

(A) managed
(B) led to
(C) worked in
(D) produced

8. The author mentions the Baldwin Locomotive Works in lines 23-24 because it was

(A) a well-known metal-works
(B) the first plant of its kind in Philadelphia
(C) typical of the large factories that were becoming more common
(D) typical of factories that consisted of a single building

Question 9-19

Stars may be spheres, but not every celestial object is
spherical. Objects in the universe show a variety of shapes:
round planets (some with rings), tailed comets, wispy cosmic
gas and dust clouds, ringed nebulae, pinwheel-shaped spiral
galaxies, and so on. But none of the shapes on this list describes
the largest single entities in the universe. These are the
double radio sources, galaxies with huge clouds of radio emission
that dwarf the visible galaxies, sometimes by a factor of a
hundred or more. Stretching over distances greater than a million
light-years, these radio-emitting regions resemble twin turbulent
gas clouds, typically forming dumbbell-like shapes with
the visible galaxy (when it is visible) in the center.

These double radio sources present astronomers with a
puzzle. Their radio emission arises from the synchrotron
process, in which electrons accelerated to nearly the speed of light
move through magnetic fields. However, in view of the rate at
which the radio sources emit energy, they should disappear in
a few million years as their electrons slow down and cease
producing radiation. Somehow new electrons must be continually
accelerated to nearly the speed of light, otherwise, by now
almost none of the double radio sources would be observed.

With the advent of high-resolution radio interferometers
during the late 1970's, part of the answer became clear: the
electrons are produced in jets that are shot out in opposite
directions from the center of galaxy. Remarkably narrow and
highly directional, the jets move outward at speeds close to the
speed of light. When the jets strike the highly rarefied gas
that permeates intergalactic space, the fast-moving electrons
lose their highly directional motion and form vast clouds of
radio-emitting gas.

Cosmic jets have ranked among the hottest topics of
astronomical research in recent years as astronomers strive to
understand where they come from. Why should a galaxy eject
matter at such tremendous speeds in two narrow jets? And
why are such jets not seen in the Milky Way?

9. The word "celestial" in line 1 could best be replaced by

(A) visible
(B) astronomical
(C) glowing
(D) scientific

10. The word "entities" in line 4 is closest in meaning to

(A) factors
(B) processes
(C) objects
(D) puzzles

11. In the first paragraph, the author describes objects in the universe in terms of their

(A) color
(B) origin
(C) location
(D) shape

12. Which of the following is the best representation of the clouds of radio emission described in the first paragraph?

(A) (图)
(B) (图)
(C) (图)
(D) (图)

13. According to the passage, scientists do not fully understand why double radio sources

(A) have not eventually disappeared
(B) cannot be observed with a telescope
(C) are beginning to slow down
(D) are not as big as some planets and stars

14. The word "their" in line 22 refers to

(A) speeds
(B) directions
(C) electrons
(D) clouds

15. According to the passage, what happens when electrons and gas collide in space?

(A) The gas becomes more condensed
(B) The gas becomes less radiated
(C) The electrons disperse
(D) The electrons become negatively charged

16. The author suggests that astronomers consider the study of cosmic jets to be

(A) an obsolete scientific field
(B) an unprofitable venture
(C) an intriguing challenge
(D) a subjective debate

17. In what lines does the passage compare the size of double radio sources with that of other galaxies?

(A) Lines 4-6
(B) Lines 12-14
(C) Lines 19-20
(D) Lines 23-24

18. Where in the passage does the author mention a technology that aided in the understanding of double radio sources?

(A) Line 2
(B) Line 7
(C) Line 17
(D) Line 21

19. The paragraph following the passage most likely discusses

(A) specific double radio sources
(B) an explanation of the synchrotron process
(C) possible reasons for the presence of cosmic jets
(D) the discovery of the first double radio sources.

Questions 20-28

The sculptural legacy that the new United States inherited
from its colonial predecessors was far from a rich one, and
in fact, in 1776 sculpture as an art form was still in the hands
of artisans and craftspeople. Stone carvers engraved their motifs
of skulls and crossbones and other religious icons of death
into the gray slabs that we still see standing today in old burial
grounds. Some skilled craftspeople made intricately carved
wooden ornamentations for furniture or architectural decorations,
while others caved wooden shop signs and ships' figureheads.
Although they often achieved expression and formal excellence
in their generally primitive style, they remained artisans
skilled in the craft of carving and constituted a group distinct
from what we normally think of as "sculptors" in today's
use of the word.

On the rare occasion when a fine piece of sculpture was
desired, Americans turned to foreign sculptors, as in the1770's
when the cities of New York and Charleston, South Carolina,
commissioned the Englishman Joseph Wilton to make marble
statues of William Pitt. Wilton also made a lead equestrian
image of King George III that was created in New York in
1770 and torn down by zealous patriots six years later. A few
marble memorials with carved busts, urns, or other decorations
were produced in England and brought to the colonies to
be set in the walls of churches-as in King's Chapel in
Boston. But sculpture as a high art, practiced by artists who
knew both the artistic theory of their Renaissance-Baroque-
Rococo predecessors and the various technical procedures of modeling,
casting, and carving rich three-dimensional forms, was
not known among Americans in 1776. Indeed, for many years
thereafter, the United States had two groups from which to
choose - either the local craftspeople or the imported talent of
European sculptors.

The eighteenth century was not one in which powerful
sculptural conceptions were developed. Add to this the timidity
with which unschooled artisans - originally trained as stonemasons,
carpenters, or cabinetmakers - attacked the medium
from which they were to make their images, and one understands
more fully the development of sculpture made in the
United States in the late eighteenth century.

20. What is the main idea of the passage?

(A) There was great demand for the work of eighteenth-century artisans.
(B) Skilled sculptors did not exist in the United States in the 1770's.
(C) Many foreign sculptors worked in the United States after 1776.
(D) American sculptors were hampered by a lack of tools and materials.

21. The word "motifs" in line 3 is closest in meaning to

(A) tools
(B) prints
(C) signatures
(D) designs

22. The work of which of the following could be seen in burial grounds?

(A) European sculptors
(B) Carpenters
(C) Stone carves
(D) Cabinetmakers

23. The word "other" in line 6 refers to

(A) craftspeople
(B) decorations
(C) ornamentations
(D) shop signs

24. The word "distinct" in line 9 is closest in meaning to

(A) separate
(B) assembled
(C) notable
(D) inferior

25. The word "rare" in line 11 is closest in meaning to

(A) festive
(B) infrequent
(C) delightful
(D) unexpected

26. Why does the author mention Joseph Wilton in line 13?

(A) He was an English sculptor who did work in the United States.
(B) He was well known for his wood carvings
(C) He produced sculpture for churches.
(D) He settled in the United States in 1776.

27. What can be inferred about the importation of marble memorials from England?

(A) Such sculpture was less expensive to produce locally than to import
(B) Such sculpture was not available in the United States.
(C) Such sculpture was as prestigious as those made locally.
(D) The materials found abroad were superior.

28. How did the work of American carvers in 1776 differ from that of contemporary sculptors?

(A) It was less time-consuming
(B) It was more dangerous.
(C) It was more expensive.
(D) It was less refined.

Question 29-39

Large animals that inhabit the desert have evolved a number
of adaptations for reducing the effects of extreme heat.
One adaptation is to be light in color, and to reflect rather
than absorb the Sun's rays. Desert mammals also depart from
the normal mammalian practice of maintaining a constant body
temperature. Instead of trying to keep down the body temperature
deep inside the body, which would involve the expenditure
of water and energy, desert mammals allow their temperatures
to rise to what would normally be fever height, and
temperatures as high as 46 degrees Celsius have been measured
in Grant's gazelles. The overheated body then cools down
during the cold desert night, and indeed the temperature may
fall unusually low by dawn, as low as 34 degrees Celsius in the
camel. This is an advantage since the heat of the first few
hours of daylight is absorbed in warming up the body, and an
excessive buildup of heat does not begin until well into
the day.

Another strategy of large desert animals is to tolerate the
loss of body water to a point that would be fatal for non-adapted
animals. The camel can lose up to 30 percent of its body
weight as water without harm to itself, whereas human beings
die after losing only 12 to 13 percent of their body weight. An
equally important adaptation is the ability to replenish this
water loss at one drink. Desert animals can drink prodigious
volumes in a short time, and camels have been known to imbibe
over 100 liters in a few minutes. A very dehydrated person,
on the other hand, cannot drink enough water to rehydrate at
one session, because the human stomach is not sufficiently big
and because a too rapid dilution of the body fluids causes death
from water intoxication. The tolerance of water loss is of
obvious advantage in the desert, as animals do not have to remain
near a water hole but can obtain food from grazing sparse and
far-flung pastures. Desert-adapted mammals have the further
ability to feed normally when extremely dehydrated, it is a
common experience in people that appetite is lost even under
conditions of moderate thirst.

29. What is the main topic of the passage?

(A) Weather variations in the desert
(B) Adaptations of desert animals
(C) Diseased of desert animals
(D) Human use of desert animals.

30. According to the passage, why is light coloring an advantage to large desert animals?

(A) It helps them hide from predators.
(B) It does not absorb sunlight as much as dark colors.
(C) It helps them see their young at night
(D) It keeps them cool at night.

31. The word "maintaining" in line 4 is closest in meaning to

(A) measuring
(B) inheriting
(C) preserving
(D) delaying

32. The author uses of Grant's gazelle as an example of

(A) an animal with a low average temperature
(B) an animal that is not as well adapted as the camel
(C) a desert animal that can withstand high body temperatures
(D) a desert animal with a constant body temperature

33. When is the internal temperature of a large desert mammal lower?

(A) Just before sunrise
(B) In the middle of the day
(C) Just after sunset
(D) Just after drinking

34. The word "tolerate" in line 13 is closest in meaning to

(A) endure
(B) replace
(C) compensate
(D) reduce

35. What causes water intoxication?

(A) Drinking too much water very quickly
(B) Drinking polluted water
(C) Bacteria in water
(D) Lack of water.

36. What does the author imply about desert-adapted mammals?

(A) They do not need to eat much food.
(B) They can eat large quantities quickly
(C) They easily lose their appetites.
(D) They can travel long distances looking for food.

37. Why does the author mention humans in the second paragraph?

(A) To show how they use camels.
(B) To contrast them to desert mammals.
(C) To give instructions about desert survival.
(D) To show how they have adapted to desert life.

38. The word "obtain" in line 23 is closest in meaning to

(A) digest
(B) carry
(C) save
(D) get

39. Which of the following is NOT mentioned as an adaptation of large desert animals?

(A) Variation in body temperatures
(B) Eating while dehydrated
(C) Drinking water quickly
(D) Being active at night.

Questions 40-50

Rent control is the system whereby the local government
tells building owners how much they can charge their tenants
in rent. In the United States, rent controls date back to at
least World War II.

In 1943 the federal government imposed rent controls to
help solve the problem of housing shortages during wartime.
The federal program ended after the war, but in some locations,
including New York City, controls continued. Under
New York's controls, a landlord generally cannot raise rents
on apartments as long as the tenants continue to renew their
leases. In places such as Santa Monica, California, rent controls
are more recent. They were spurred by the inflation of
the 1970's, which, combined with California's rapid population
growth, pushed housing prices, as well as rents, to record
levels. In 1979 Santa Monica's municipal government ordered
landlords to roll back their rents to the levels charged in 1978.
Future rents could only go up by two-thirds as much as any
increase in the overall price level.

In any housing market, rental prices perform three functions:
(1) promoting the efficient maintenance of existing
housing and stimulating the construction of new housing, (2)
allocating existing scarce housing among competing claimants,
and (3) rationing use of existing housing by potential renters.

One result of rent control is a decrease in the construction
of new rental units. Rent controls have artificially depressed
the most important long-term determinant of profitability -
rents. Consider some examples. In a recent year in Dallas,
Texas, with a 16 percent rental vacancy rate but no rent
control laws, 11,000 new housing units were built. In the same
year, in San Francisco, California, only 2,000 units were
built. The major difference? San Francisco has only a 1.6
percent vacancy rate but stringent rent control laws. In New York
City, except for government-subsidized construction, the only
rental units being built are luxury units, which are exempt
from controls. In Santa Monica, California, new apartments
are not being constructed. New office rental space and
commercial developments are, however. They are
exempt from rent controls.

40. What does the passage mainly discuss?

(A) The construction of apartments in the United States.
(B) Causes and effects of rent control
(C) The fluctuations of rental prices
(D) The shortage of affordable housing in the United States.

41. The word "They" in line 9 refers to

(A) the tenants
(B) their leases
(C) places
(D) rent controls.

42. Which of the following was NOT a reason for the introduction of rent controls in Santa Monica, California?

(A) Rapid population growth
(B) Inflation
(C) Economic conditions during wartime
(D) Record-high housing prices

43. The phrase "roll back" in lines 11-12 is closest in meaning to

(A) credit
(B) measure
(C) vary
(D) reduce

44. The word "stimulating" in line 15 is closest in meaning to

(A) experimenting with
(B) identifying
(C) estimating
(D) encouraging

45. It can be inferred that the purpose of rent control is to

(A) protect tenants
(B) promote construction
(C) increase vacancy rates
(D) decrease sales of rental units

46. The word "depressed" in line 19 is closest in meaning to

(A) saddened
(B) created
(C) lowered
(D) defeated

47. The information in the last paragraph supports which of the following statements?

(A) San Francisco has eliminated its rent control laws.
(B) Rent control leads to a reduction in the construction of housing units
(C) Luxury apartments are rarely built when there is rent control
(D) There is a growing need for government-subsidized housing.

48. According to the passage, which of the following cities does NOT currently have rent
controls?

(A) Santa Monica
(B) Dallas
(C) San Francisco
(D) New York City

49. The word "stringent" in line 23 is closest in meaning to

(A) straightforward
(B) strict
(C) expanded
(D) efficient

50. According to the passage, which of the following is NOT exempt from rent control?

(A) Luxury apartments
(B) Commercial development
(C) Moderately priced apartments
(D) Office space.

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