广州环雅季度课程热报中新航道寒假课程9折抢报北京雅思部分课程限时9折优惠澳际英语暑期热报 优惠进行中

2001年5月TOEFL考题

来源:发布时间:2007-05-15

Section One: Listening Comprehension

1. (A) He has just recovered from the flu.
(B) He won’t be able to go to the play.
(C) He heard that the play isn’t very good.
(D) He has already seen the play.

2. (A) Share the place he’s renting.
(B) Avoid living near the campus.
(C) Apply for campus housing.
(D) Find an apartment soon.

3. (A) He wants to meet the woman after his Spanish class.
(B) The woman should borrow someone else’s workbook.
(C) He can take the woman to her class.
(D) The woman needs to return the workbook before the class.

4. (A) She didn’t know Dr. Turner’s lecture would be so interesting.
(B) She didn’t expect to have a quiz today.
(C) Dr. Turner often gives quizzes.
(D) The man should have prepared for the class.

5. (A) There are different kinds of folders.
(B) This decision requires careful thought.
(C) It doesn’t matter which color she uses.
(D) The color should suggest the content.

6. (A) She prepares her students well.
(B) She used to teach graduate courses.
(C) She isn’t qualified to teach organic chemistry.
(D) Her students rarely attend graduate school.

7. (A) He decided not to sell the piano.
(B) He’s looking for a place to store the piano.
(C) No one has bought the piano.
(D) He hasn’t been able to find an inexpensive piano yet.

8. (A) Tennis players often injure their backs.
(B) She hadn’t heard about the man’s problem.
(C) The man should have seen the doctor.
(D) She’ll check the man’s schedule as soon as possible.



9. (A) He already knew about the problem.
(B) Someone has started fixing the washing machine.
(C) No one complained about the washing machine today.
(D) There’s nothing wrong with the washing machine.

10. (A) It won’t take long to get to the station.
(B) It’ll be easy for him to give the woman a ride to the station.
(C) He’ll ride on the train with the woman.
(D) He’s picking someone up from the station.

11. (A) I’ll out an application from.
(B) Apply for a different position.
(C) File the papers in the cabinet.
(D) Show her the advertisement from the newspaper.

12. (A) Go with her to the airport.
(B) Talk to her for a short time.
(C) Find out when the plane is leaving.
(D) Make the phone call now.

13. (A) He can give the woman directions to Chicago.
(B) He can drive the woman to Chicago.
(C) He can get a map for the woman.
(D) He can take the woman to the bookstore.

14. (A) He didn’t show his paintings at the exhibit.
(B) He didn’t see the paintings.
(C) He doesn’t understand Ted’s art.
(D) The exhibit was canceled.

15. (A) She has canceled her trip to lowa.
(B) The snowstorm is getting weaker.
(C) The man’s information isn’t accurate.
(D) They also may get a lot of snow.

16. (A) She needs more time to get ready for the dinner.
(B) She thought the dinner was at another time.
(C) She forgot about the plans she made for dinner.
(D) She won’t be able to go to dinner.

17. (A) Take the class this semester.
(B) Get permission to take the class.
(C) Take the class over again.
(D) Register for the class next semester.

18. (A) He doesn’t like his new eyeglass frames.
(B) He didn’t get a haircut.
(C) He got his eyeglasses a long time ago.
(D) Several people have asked him about his new eyeglass frames.

19. (A) The grades have been calculated correctly.
(B) The woman will get the grade she deserves.
(C) The woman received one of the highest grades.
(D) The woman’s grade can’t be changed.

20. (A) She left the lecture for a few minutes.
(B) She was reading doing the lecture.
(C) She may have fallen asleep.
(D) She misunderstood the speaker’s last points.

21. (A) The man hasn’t seen Joan recently.
(B) The man plans to call Joan soon.
(C) Joan doesn’t know what happened to the book.
(D) Joan gave the book to the man.

22. (A) Why she should tell her students about her plans.
(B) What he plans to do when he’s on sabbatical.
(C) Why she can’t take a sabbatical next semester.
(D) Why her students probably weren’t surprised by her announcement.

23. (A) Put a little more pepper in the stew.
(B) Taste the stew to see if it needs paper.
(C) Check the recipe to see if they followed it correctly.
(D) Serve the stew as it is.

24. (A) She wants to know where Tom heard th stories.
(B) She’s surprised Tom was so serious last night.
(C) Tom doesn’t usually tell funny stories.
(D) The stories probably weren’t true.

25. (A) He plans to sell the books to a collector.
(B) He won’t sell the books until he has read them.
(C) The books probably aren’t worth a lot of money.
(D) The woman can borrow any of the books if she wants to.

26. (A) Leave with the man.
(B) Get ready to leave for the weekend.
(C) Stay where she is for the weekend.
(D) Meet the man later.

27. (A) The man is upset that the wasn’t invited to the party.
(B) The man and the woman live in different buildings.
(C) The woman’s friends were louder than she expected they would be.
(D) The woman hadn’t intended to serve food and beverages at the party.

28. (A) Mary hadn’t planned to attend the seminar.
(B) Mary has been ill for several weeks.
(C) Mary forgot about the seminar.
(D) Mary wasn’t able to attend the seminar.

29. (A) Do more research before they meet.
(B) Meet several days before the presentation.
(C) Change the day of the presentation.
(D) Try to solve the problems before they meet.

30. (A) She’ll talk to Judy about the problem.
(B) She may not be available later to help the man.
(C) She isn’t sure if Judy can solve the problem.
(D) The man will be able to solve the problem himself.

31. (A) Places the man has visited.
(B) A paper the woman is writing for a class.
(C) School activities they enjoy.
(D) The woman’s plans for the summer.

32. (A) She has never been to Gettysburg.
(B) She took a political science course.
(C) Her family still goes on vacation together.
(D) She’s interested in the United States Civil War.

33. (A) Why her parents wanted to go to Gettysburg.
(B) Why her family’s vacation plans changed ten years ago.
(C) Where her family went for a vacation ten years ago.
(D) When her family went on their last vacation.

34. (A) It’s far from where she lives.
(B) Her family went there without her.
(C) She doesn’t know a lot about it.
(D) She’s excited about going there.

35. (A) A catalog mailed to the man.
(B) The woman’s catalog order.
(C) The history of mail-order catalogs.
(D) A comparison of two kinds of catalogs.

36. (A) She wants to learn about Richard Sears.
(B) She is helping the man with his assignment.
(C) She needs to buy a filing cabinet.
(D) She wants to order some textbooks.

37. (A) Teachers.
(B) Farmers.
(C) Students.
(D) Laborers.

38. (A) As textbooks.
(B) As fuel.
(C) As newspapers.
(D) As art.

39. (A) Taxes on factory goods rose.
(B) Some people lost their farms.
(C) Shipping prices rose.
(D) some families lost their businesses.

40. (A) Problems with pesticides.
(B) Characteristics of one type of falcon.
(C) Migratory patterns of birds.
(D) Tracking systems for animals.

41. (A) It flying speed.
(B) Its keen hearing.
(C) It size.
(D) Its aggressiveness.

42. (A) By radar.
(B) By airplane.
(C) By direct observation.
(D) By satellite.

43. (A) The types of instruments used in bebo music.
(B) The social setting in which bebop music developed.
(C) How two styles of jazz music influenced each other
(D) The influence of bebop music on the United States economy during the 1940’s.

44. (A) They didn’t use singers.
(B) They gave free concerts.
(C) They performed in small nightclubs.
(D) They shortened the length of their performances.

45. (A) To discuss one way it impacted jazz music.
(B) To explain why the government reduced some taxes.
(C) To describe a common theme in jazz music.
(D) To discuss the popularity of certain jazz bands.

46. (A) The music contained strong political messages.
(B) The music had a steady beat that people could dance to.
(C) The music included sad melodies.
(D) The music contained irregular types of rhythms.

47. (A) The increase in beachfront property value.
(B) An experimental engineering project.
(C) The erosion of coastal areas
(D) How to build seawalls.

48. (A) To protect beachfront property.
(B) To reduce the traffic on beach roads.
(C) To provide privacy for homeowners.
(D) To define property limits.

49. (A) By sending water directly back to sea with  great force.
(B) By reducing wave energy.
(C) By reducing beach width.
(D) By stabilizing beachfront construction.

50. (A) Protect roads along the shore.
(B) Build on beaches with seawalls.
(C) Add sand to beaches with seawalls.
(D) Stop building seawalls.

Section Two: Structure and Written Expression

1. The giant ragweed, or buffalo weed, grows ---.
(A) 18 feet up to high
(B) to high 18 feet up
(C) up to 18 feet high
(D) 18 feet high up to

2. Neptune is --- any planet except Pluto.
(A) to be far from the Sun
(B) far from the Sun being
(C) farther than the Sun is
(D) farther from the Sun than

3. Since prehistoric times, artists have arranged
paint on surfaces in ways --- their ideas about
people and the world.
(A) express
(B) that their expression of
(C) which, expressing
(D) that express

4. Except for certain microorganisms, --- need oxygen to survive.
(A) of all living things
(B) all living things
(C) all are living things
(D) are all living things

5. Dubbing is used in filmmaking --- a new sound track to a motion picture.
(A) which to add
(B) to add
(C) is adding that
(D) to add while

6. --- of green lumber may come from moisture in the wood.
(A) More weight than half
(B) Of the weight, more than half
(C) The weight is more than half
(D) More than half of the weight

7. Archaeologists study ---- to trace ancient trade
routes because such tools are relatively rare, and
each occurrence has a slightly different chemical composition.
(A) which obsidian tools
(B) obsidian tools
(C) how obsidian tools
(D) obsidian tools are

8. ---- the hamster’s basic diet is vegetarian, some hamsters also eat insects.
(A) Despite
(B) Although
(C) Regardless of
(D) Consequently

9. The Navajo Indians of the southwestern United
States --- for their sand painting, also called dry painting.
(A) noted
(B) are noted
(C) to be noted
(D) have noted

10. In 1784, the leaders of what would later
become the state of Virginia gave up --- to the
territory that later became five different
Midwestern states.
(A) any claim
(B) when the claim
(C) to claim
(D) would claim

11. ---- one after another, parallel computers
 perform groups of operations at the same time.
(A) Conventional computers, by handling tasks
(B) Since tasks being handled by conventional  computers
(C) Whereas conventional computers handle tasks
(D) While tasks handled by conventional computers

12. The Liberty Bell, formerly housed in
Independence Hall, --- in Philadelphia, was
moved to a separate glass pavilion in 1976.
(A) which a historic building
(B) a historic building which
(C) was a historic building
(D) a historic building

13. Fossils, traces of dead organisms found in the
rocks of Earth’s crust, reveal --- at the time the
rocks were formed.
(A) what was like
(B) was like life
(C) what life was like
(D) life was like

14. Although the huge ice masses ---- glaciers
move slowly, they are a powerful erosive force in nature.
(A) call them
(B) are called
(C) to call
(D) called

15. The soybean contains vitamins, essential
minerals, --- high percentage of protein.
(A) a
(B) and a
(C) since a
(D) of which a



16. A gene is a biological unit of information who directs the activity of a cell or organism during its
A B C D
lifetime.

17. The flowering of African American talent in literature, music, and art in the 1920’s in New York City
A B C
became to know as the Harlem Renaissance.
D

18. The symptoms of pneumonia, a lung infection, include high fever, chest pain, breathing difficult, and
A B C D
coughing.

19. The rapid grow of Boston during the mid-nineteenth century coincided with a large influx of
A B C
European immigrants.D

20. In 1908 Olive Campbell started writing down folk songs by rural people in the southern Appalachian
A B C
mountains near hers home.
D

21.The thirteen stripes of the United States flag represent the original thirteen states of the Union, which
A B C
they all were once colonies of Britain.
D

22. In 1860, more as 90 percent of the people of Indiana lived rural areas, with only a few cities having a
A B C
population exceeding 10,000.
D

23.Gravitation keeps the Moon in orbit around Earth and the planets other of the solar system in orbit
A B C D
around the Sun.

24. Photograph was revolutionized in 1831 by the introduction of the collodion process for making glass
A B C D
negatives.

25. After flax is washed, dry, beaten, and combed, fibers are obtained for use in making fabric.
A B C D

26. A fever is caused which blood cells release proteins called pyrogens, raising the body’s temperature.
A B C D

27. Because of various gift-giving holidays, most stores clothing in the United Sates do almost as much
A B
business in November and December as they do in the other ten months combined.
C D

28.The United States National Labor Relations Board is authorized to investigation allegations of unfair
A B
labor practices on the part of either employers or employees.
C D

29.The Great Potato Famine in Ireland in the 1840’s caused an unprecedented numbers of people from
A B C
Ireland to immigrate to the United States.
D

30.The particles comprising a given cloud are continually changing, as new ones are added while others
A B
are taking away by moving air.
C D

31.Political parties in the United States help to coordinate the campaigns of their members and organizes A B C
the statewide and national conventions that mark election years.
D

32.The lemur is an unusual animal belonging to the same order than monkey’s and apes.
A B C D

33.Chese may be hard or soft, depending on the amount of water left into it and the character of
A B C D
the cuting.

34.The carbon-are lamp, a very bright electric lamp used for spotlights, consists of two carbon
A B
electrodes with a high-current are passing between it.
C D

35. At first the poems of E.E. Cummings gained notoriety to their idiosyncratic punctuation and
A B
typography, but they have gradually been recognized for their lyric power as well.
C D

36.The mechanism of human thought and recall, a subject only partly understood by scientists, is
A B C
extraordinary complicated.
D

37.While the process of photosynthesis in green plants, light energy is captured and used
A B
to convert water, carbon dioxide, and minerals into oxygen and organic compounds.
C D

38.The globe artichoke was known as a delicacy at least 2,500 years ago, and records of its
A B C
cultivation date from fifteenth century.
D

39. Humans do not constitute the only species endowed with intelligence: the higher animals also
A B C
have considerably problem-solving abilities.
D

40. Many of species of milkweed are among the most dangerous of poisonous plants, while others
A B C
have little, if any, toxicity.
D

Questions 1-10
In the early 1800’s, over 80 percent of the United States labor force was engaged
in agriculture. Sophisticated technology and machinery were virtually nonexistent.
People who lived in the cities and were not directly involved in trade often participated
Line in small cottage industries making handcrafted goods. Others cured meats, silversmiths, candle
5) or otherwise produced needed goods and commodities. Blacksmiths, silversmiths, candle
makers, and other artisans worked in their homes or barns, relying on help of family
Perhaps no single phenomenon brought more widespread and lasting change to the
United States society than the rise of industrialization. Industrial growth hinged on several
10) economic factors. First, industry requires an abundance of natural resources, especially
coal, iron ore, water, petroleum, and timber-all readily available on the North American
continent. Second, factories demand a large labor supply. Between the 1870’s and the
First World War (1914-1918), approximately 23 million immigrants streamed to the
United States, settled in cities, and went to work in factories and mines. They also helped
15)build the vast network of canals and railroads that crisscrossed the continent and linked
important trade centers essential to industrial growth.
Factories also offered a reprieve from the backbreaking work and financial
unpredictability associated with farming. Many adults, poor and disillusioned with
farm life, were lured to the cities by promises of steady employment, regular paychecks,
20) increased access to goods and services, and expanded social opportunities. Others were
pushed there when new technologies made their labor cheap or expendable; inventions
such as steel plows and mechanized harvesters allowed one farmhand to perform work
that previously had required several, thus making farming capital-intensive rather than
labor-intensive.
25) The United States economy underwent a massive transition and the nature of work
was permanently altered. Whereas cottage industries relied on a few highly skilled craft
workers who slowly and carefully converted raw materials into finished products from
start to finish, factories relied on specialization. While factory work was less creative and
more monotonous, it was also more efficient and allowed mass production of goods at
less expense.


1.What aspect of life in the United States does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) The transition from an agricultural to an industrial economy
(B) The inventions that transformed life in the nineteenth century
(C) The problems associated with the earliest factories
(D) The difficulty of farm life in the nineteenth century
2. Blacksmiths, silversmiths, and candle makers are mentioned in lines 5-6 as examples of
artisans who
(A) maintained their businesses at home
(B) were eventually able to use sophisticated technology
(C) produced unusual goods and commodities
(D) would employ only family members

3. The phrase “hinged on” in line 9 is closest in meaning to
(A) recovered from
(B) depended on
(C) started on
(D) contributed to

4. Which of the following is mentioned in the passage as a reason for the industrial growth that occurred in the United States before 1914?
(A)The availability of natural resources found only in the United States
(B) The decrease in number of farms resulting from technological advances
(C) The replacement of canals and railroads by other forms of transportation
(D) The availability of a large immigrant work force

5. The word “lured” in line 19 is closest in meaning to
(A) attracted
(B) assigned
(C) restricted
(D) attached

6. The word “Others” in line 20 refers to other
(A) adults
(B) promises
(C) goods and services
(D) social opportunities

7.The word “expendable” in line 21 is closest in meaning to
(A) nonproductive
(B) unacceptable
(C) nonessential
(D) unprofitable

8. It can be inferred from the passage that
industrialization affected farming in that industrialization
(A) increased the price of farm products
(B) limited the need for new farm machinery
(C) created new and interesting jobs on farms
(D) reduced the number of people willing to do farm work

9.What does the author mean when stating that certain inventions made farming “capital-intensive rather than labor-intensive”(lines 23-24)?
(A) Workers had to be trained to operate the new machines.
(B) Mechanized farming required more capital and fewer laborers.
(C) The new inventions were not helpful for all farming activities.
(D) Human labor could still accomplish as much work as the first machines.

10. According to the passage, factory workers differed from craft workers in that factory workers
(A) were required to be more creative
(B) worked extensively with raw materials
(C) changed jobs frequently
(D) specialized in one aspect of the finished product only

Question 11-20
Molting is one of the most involved processes of a bird’s annual life cycle.
Notwithstanding preening and constant care, the marvelously intricate structure of a bird’s
Feather inevitably wears out. All adult birds molt their feathers at least once a year, and
Line upon close observation, one can recognize the frayed, ragged appearance of feathers that
5) are nearing the end of their useful life. Two distinct processes are involved in molting.
The first step is when the old, worn feather is dropped, or shed. The second is when a new
feather grows in its place. When each feather has been shed and replaced, then the molt
can be said to be complete. This, however, is an abstraction that often does not happen:
incomplete, overlapping, and arrested molts are quite common.
10) Molt requires that a bird find and process enough protein to rebuild approximately
one-third of its body weight. It is not surprising that a bird in heavy molt often seems
listless and unwell. But far from being random, molt is controlled by strong evolutionary
forces that have established an optimal time and duration. Generally, molt occurs at the
time of least stress on the bird. Many songbirds, for instance, molt in late summer, when
15) the hard work of breeding is done but the weather is still warm and food still plentiful.
This is why the woods in late summer often seem so quiet, when compared with the
Exuberant choruses of spring.
Molt of the flight feathers is the most highly organized part of the process. Some species,
for example, begin by dropping the outermost primary feathers on each side (to retain
20) balance in the air) and wait until the replacement feathers are about one-third grown before
shedding the next outermost, and so on. Others always start with the innermost primary
feathers and work outward. Yet other species begin in the middle and work outward on both
weeks while the replacement feathers grow.


11.The passage mainly discusses how
(A) birds prepare for breeding
(B) bird feathers differ from species
(C) birds shed and replace their feathers
(D) birds are affected by seasonal changes

12.The word “Notwithstanding” in line 2 is closest in meaning to
(A) despite
(B) because of
(C) instead of
(D) regarding

13.The word “intricate” in line 2 is closest in meaning to
(A) regular
(B) complex
(C) interesting
(D) important

14.The word “random” in line 12 is closest in meaning to
(A) unfortunate
(B) unusual
(C) unobservable
(D) unpredictable

15.The word “optimal” in line 13 is closest in meaning to
(A) slow
(B) frequent
(C) best
(D) early

16.Which of the following is NOT mentioned as a reason that songbirds molt in the late summer?
(A) Fewer predators are in the woods.
(B) The weathers is still warm.
(C) The songbirds have finished breeding.
(D) Food is still available.

17. Some birds that are molting maintain balance during flight by
(A) constantly preening and caring for their remaining feathers
(B) dropping flight feathers on both sides at the same time
(C) adjusting the angle of their flight to compensate for lost feathers
(D) only losing one-third of their feathers

18.The word “Others” in line 21 refers to
(A) ducks
(B) sides
(C) species
(D) flight feathers

19.The author discusses ducks in order to provide an example of birds that
(A) grow replacement feathers that are very long
(B) shed all their wing feathers at one time
(C) keep their innermost feathers
(D) shed their outermost feathers first

20. It can inferred from the discussion about ducks that the molting of their flight feathers takes.
(A) a year
(B) a season
(C) several months
(D) a few weeks


Question 21-30
The Harlem Renaissance, a movement of the 1920’s, marked the twentieth century’s
first period of intense activity by African Americans in the field of literature, art, and
music in the United States. The philosophy of the movement combined realism, ethnic
Line consciousness, and Americanism. Encouraged by the example of certain Americans
5) of European descent such as Thomas Eakins, Robert Henri, and George Luks, who had
included persons of African descent in their paintings as serious studies rather than as
trivial or sentimental stereotypes, African American artists of this period set about
creating a new portrayal of themselves and their lives in the United States. As they began
to strive for social and cultural independence. Their attitudes toward themselves changed,
10) and, to some extent, other segments of American society began to change their attitudes
toward them. Thus, thought the Harlem Renaissance was a short-lived movement, its
impact on American art and culture continues to the present.
The district in New York City know as Harlem was the capital of the movement.
In 1925 an issue of Survey Graphic magazine devoted exclusively to Harlem and edited
15) by philosopher Alain Locke became the manifesto of the African American artistic
movement. Locke strongly suggested that individuals, while accepting their Americanism,
take pride in their African ancestral arts and urged artists to look to Africa for substance
and inspiration. Far from advocating a withdrawal from American culture, as did some of
his contemporaries, Locke recommended a cultural pluralism through which artists could
20) enrich the culture of America. African Americans were urged by Locke to be collaborators
and participators with other Americans in art, literature, and music; and at the same time
to preserve, enhance, and promote their own cultural heritage.
Artists and intellectuals from many parts of the United States and the Caribbean had
Been attracted to Harlem by the pulse and beat of its unique and dynamic culture. From
25) this unity created by the convergence of artists from various social and geographical
backgrounds came a new spirit, which, particularly in densely populated Harlem, was
to result in greater group awareness and self-determination. African American graphic
artists took their place beside the poets and writers of the Harlem Renaissance and
carried on efforts to increase and promote the visual arts.

21.What does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) African American paintings in the 1920’s
(B) An arts movement of the 1920’s
(C) The influence of Alain Locke on African American art
(D) Some ways in which African culture inspired American literature, art and music

22. According to the passage, Tomas Eakins, Robert Henri, and George Luks were important because of
(A) the philosophical contributions they made to the Harlem Renaissance
(B) their development of a new style of African American art
(C) they way in which they depicted African Americans in their paintings
(D) their independence from European artistic traditions

23. The word “them” in line 11 refers to
(A) Americans of European descent
(B) paintings
(C) African American artists
(D) attitudes

24. According to the passage, African American artists of the 1920’s differed from earlier African American artists in terms of their feelings about
(A) themselves
(B) other artists
(C) their impact on American art
(D) stereotypes

25.The word “urged” in line 17 is closest in meaning to
(A) prepared
(B) defined
(C) permitted
(D) encouraged

26. Alain Locke believed all of the following to be important to the African American artistic movement EXCEPT
(A) pride in African art
(B) cultural pluralism
(C) collaboration with other artists
(D) withdrawal from American culture

27. In mentioning “the pulse and beat” (line24) of Harlem during the 1920’s, the author is characterizing the district as one that
(A) depended greatly on its interaction with other parts of the city
(B) grew economically in a short period of time
(C) was an exciting place to be
(D) was in danger of losing population

28.The word “convergence” in line 25 is closest in meaning to
(A) gathering
(B) promotion
(C) expression
(D) influence

29. According to the passage, all of the following were true of Harlem in the 1920’s EXCEPT:
(A) Some Caribbean artists and intellectuals lived there.
(B) It attracted people from various regions of United States.
(C) It was one of the most expensive neighborhoods in New York City.
(D) It was a unique cultural center.

30.The phrase “carried on” in line 29 is closest in meaning to
(A) continued
(B) praised
(C) transformed
(D) connected

Questions 31-40
Ethology is concerned with the study of adaptive, or survival,value of behavior and its
Evolutionary history. Ethological theory began to be applied to research on children in the
1960’s but has become even more influential today. The origins of ethology can be traced
Line to the work of Darwin. Its modern foundations were laid by two European zoologists,
5) Konrad Lorenz and Niko Tinbergen.
Watching the behaviors diverse animal species in their natural habitats, Lorenz, and
Tinbergen observed behavior patterns that promote survival. The most well-known of these
is imprinting, the carly following behavior of certain baby birds that ensures that the young
will stay close to their mother and be fed and protected from danger. Imprinting takes place
10) during an early, restricted time period of development. If the mother goose is not present
during this time, but an object resembling her in important features is, young goslings may
imprint on it instead.
Observations of imprinting led to major concept that has been applied in child
Development” the critical period. It refers to a limited times span during which the child is
15) biologically prepared to acquire certain adaptive behaviors but needs the support of suitably
stimulating environment. Many researchers have conducted studies to find out whether
complex congnitive and social behaviors must be learned during restricted time periods.
for example, if children are deprived of adequate food or physical and social stimulation
during the early years of life, will their intelligence be permanently impaired? If language
20) is not mastered during the preschool years, is the child’s capacity to acquire it reduced?
Inspired by observations of imprinting, in 1969 the British psychoanalyst John Bowlby
applied ethological theory to the understanding of the relationship between an infant and
its parents. He argued that attach ment behaviors of babies, such as smiling, babbling,
grasping, and crying, are built-in social signals that encourage the parents to approach,
25) care for, and interact with the baby. By keeping a parent near, these behaviors help ensure
that the baby will be fed, protected from danger, and provided with the stimulation and
affection necessary for healthy growth. The development of attachment in human infants
is a lengthy process involving changes in psychological structures that lead to a deep
affectional tie between parent and baby.

31.What was Darwin’s contribution to ethology?
(A) Darwin improved on the original principles of ethology.
(B) Darwin was the professor who taught Lorenz and Tinbergen.
(C) Darwin’s work provided the basis for ethology.
(D) Darwin was the first person to apply ethological theory to children.

32.The word “diverse” in line 6 is closest in meaning to
(A) small
(B) varied
(C) wild
(D) particular

33.The word “ensures” in line 8 is closest in meaning to
(A) guarantees
(B) proves
(C) teaches
(D) assumes

34. According to the passage, if a mother goose is not present during the time period when
imprinting takes place, which of the following will most likely occur?
(A) The gosling will not imprint on any object.
(B) The gosling may not find a mate when it matures.
(C) The mother will later imprint on the gosling.
(D) The gosling may imprint on another object.

35.The word “it” in line 12 refers to
(A) development
(B) goose
(C) time
(D) object

36.The word “suitably” in line 15 is closest in meaning to
(A) willingly
(B) moderately
(C) appropriately
(D) emotionally

37.The author mentions all of the following as attachment behaviors of human infants EXCEPT
(A) grasping
(B) crying
(C) eating
(D) smiling

38.According to the passage, attachment behaviors of infants are intended to
(A) get the physical, emotional and social needs of the infant met
(B) allow the infant to become imprinted on objects that resemble the parent
(C) provide the infant with a means of self-stimulation
(D) prepare the infant to cope with separation

39.The phrase “affectional tie” in line 29 is closest in meaning to
(A) cognitive development
(B) emotional attachment
(C) psychological need
(D) behavioral change

40. It can be inferred from the passage that ethological theory assumes that
(A) to learn about human behavior only human subjects should be studied
(B) failure to imprint has no influence on inteligence
(C) the notion of critical periods applies only to animals
(D) there are similarities between animal and human behavior


Questions 41-50

There are only a few clues in the rock record about climate in the Proterozoic con.
Much of our information about climate in the more recent periods of geologic history
comes from the fossil record, because we have a reasonably good understanding of
Line the types of environment in which many fossil organisms flourished. The scarce fossils
5) of the Proterozoic, mostly single-celled bacteria, provide little evidence in this regard.
However, the rocks themselves do include the earliest evidence for glaciation, probably
a global ice age.
The inference that some types of sedimentary rocks are the result of glacial activity
is based on the principle of uniformitarianism, which posits that natural processes now
10) at work on and within the Earth operated in the same manner in the distant past. The
deposits associated with present-day glaciers have been well studied, and some of their characteristics are quite distinctive. In 2.3-billion-year-old rocks in Canada near Lake
Huron (dating from the early part of the Proterozoic age), there are thin laminae of
fine-grained sediments that resemble varves, the annual layers of sediment deposited in
15) glacial lakes. Typically, present-day varves show two-layered annual cycle, one layer
corresponding to the rapid ice melting and sediment transport of the summer season, and
the other, finer-grained, layer corresponding to slower winter deposition. Although it is
not easy to discern such details in the Proterozoic examples, they are almost certainly
glacial varves. These fine-grained, layered sediments even contain occasional large
20) pebbles or “dropstones,” a characteristic feature of glacial environments where coarse
material is sometimes carried on floating ice and dropped far from its source, into
otherwise very fine grained sediment. Glacial sediments of about the same age as those
in Canada have been found in other parts of North America and in Africa, India, and
Europe. This indicates that the glaciation was global, and that for a period of time in
25) the early Proterozoic the Earth was gripped in an ice age.
Following the early Proterozoic glaciation, however, the climate appears to have
Been fairly benign for a very long time. There is no evidence for glaciation for the
Next 1.5 billion years or so. Then, suddenly, the rock record indicates a series of
Glacial episodes between about 850 and 600 million year ago, near the end of the
Proterozoic con.


41.Which of the following does the passage mainly discuss?
(A) How patterns in rock layers have been used to construct theories about the climate of the Proterozoic age
(B) What some rare fossils indicate about glacial conditions during the late Proterozoic age
(C) The varying characteristics of Proterozoic glacial varves in different parts of the world
(D) The number of glacial episodes that the Earth has experienced since the Proterozoic age

42. According to the passage, the fossil record of the Proterozoic con is
(A) highly regarded because it preserves the remains of many kinds of organisms
(B) less informative than the fossil record of more recent periods
(C) very difficult to interpret due to damage from bacteria
(D) more useful to researchers than other aspects of the rock record

43.The word “scarce” in line 4 is closest in meaning to
(A) ancient
(B) tiny
(C) available
(D) rare

44. It can be inferred from the passage that the principle of uniformitarianism indicates that
(A) similar conditions produce similar rock formations
(B) rock layers in a given region remain undisturbed over time
(C) different kinds of sedimentary rocks may
(D) each continent has its own distinctive pattern of sediment layers

45. The word “resemble” in line 14 is closest in meaning to
(A) result from
(B) penetrate
(C) look like
(D) replace have similar origins


46. According to the passage, the layers in varves are primarily formed by
(A) fossilized bacteria
(B) pieces of ancient dropstones
(C) a combination of ancient and recent sediments
(D) annual cycles of sediment transport and deposition

47. The phrase “the other” in line 17 refers to another
(A) annual cycle
(B) glacial lake
(C) layer of sediment
(D) season

48. According to the passage, the presence of dropstones indicates that
(A) the glacial environment has been unusually server
(B) the fine-grained sediment has built up very slowly
(C) there has been a global ice age
(D) coarse rock material has been carried great distances

49. Why does the author mention Canada, North America, Africa, India, and Europe in lines 23-24?
(A) To demonstrate the global spread of dropstones
(B) To explain the principles of varve formation
(C) To provide evidence for the theory that there was a global ice age in the early Proterozoic eon
(D) To illustrate the varied climatic changes of the Proterozoic con in different parts of the globe

50. Which of the following terms is defined in the passage?
(A) fossil record (line 3)
(B) laminae (line 13)
(C) varves (line14)
(D) glacial episodes (line 29)
纠错
育路版权与免责声明

① 凡本网注明稿件来源为"原创"的所有文字、图片和音视频稿件,版权均属本网所有。任何媒体、网站或个人转载、链接转贴或以其他方式复制发表时必须注明"稿件来源:育路网",违者本网将依法追究责任;

② 本网部分稿件来源于网络,任何单位或个人认为育路网发布的内容可能涉嫌侵犯其合法权益,应该及时向育路网书面反馈,并提供身份证明、权属证明及详细侵权情况证明,育路网在收到上述法律文件后,将会尽快移除被控侵权内容。

外语单项辅导

更多>>

技巧交流

进入论坛

网站导航
托福培训机构