gmat阅读试题之背海蝴蝶

来源:太傻留学发布时间:2016-11-10

   有一种Amphipod Hyperiella dilatata(片脚类动物,类似shrimp)会背着sea butterfly跑,这样在一起不容易被捕食。专家认为背着这种海蝴蝶会减缓Amphipod H.D 移动的速度,并且vulnerable to predation(Q)。下面北京育路留学小编为大家介绍一下,gmat阅读试题之背海蝴蝶,希望可以帮到大家。

  一个科学家做了一个实验,把HD的捕食者和HD及sea butterfly放在一起,结果捕食者不敢吃HD。实验结论是sea butterfly会释放一种chemical,所以捕食者就不敢吃HD了。将HD的行为和decorator crab做比较,但与AH.D不同的是,crab不是特定的捕食某种物质,而是捕食随手能及的东西。专家研究后认为,AH.D其实是一种利他无私行为,就是利他损已。

  这个现象和之前发现的symbiosis共生的3种分类都不符合,然后进行解释。讲这两个shrimp和sea butterfly的关系,列出了3种分类 symbiosis:分别是Mutualism,Commensalism, Parasitism【M互利共生、C片利共生 or共栖(互相不干扰)、P寄生共生】,然后给出一个新的分类new category叫 antagonistic symbiosis对抗性共生。最后得出结论:只有shrimp受益,所以很Unique。然后说其实也不一定会对H.D有害,因为他们都背着活的而不是死的海蝴蝶,这说明他们是有选择的/or科学家发现那个生物从来不会带着死掉的海蝴蝶跑,所以估计那个生物应该都是抓活的海蝴蝶。

  【题目】

  Q1: 主旨题

  Q2: 细节题:问Amphipod HD动物这种行为会使自己产生什么后果?

  Q3: infer题:如果H.d和海蝴蝶不是第1或第2种symbolisis,能得出什么?

  Q4: 第三段的function?

  【参考阅读】

  The nature of this relationship is puzzling. It is difficult to discern how

  carrying another organism around can be advantageous. We speculated that in fact, amphipods片脚类动物must be considerably slowed down. By carefully measuring the swimming speeds of amphipods with and without seabutterflies, we found that amphipods carrying seabutterflies moved only half as quickly as similarly sized solitary amphipods. The situation simply made nosense. In reducing their mobility, the amphipods became more vulnerable to predators and less adept at capturing prey. Why, then, would amphipods go out of their way to abduct诱拐 and carry sea butterflies?

  Our experiments clearly demonstrated that something about the sea butterflies was repelling the fish, and we suspected that this deterrence威慑was chemical. To find out, we conducted a second set of feeding experiments. We homogenized均匀分布、均质化the sea butterflies and mixed the homogenate [组织]匀浆with fish-meal powder to make food pellets小弹丸. As a control, we also made food pellets containing just the fish-meal powder. We offered both the experimental and the control pellets to fish, which always ate the control pellets and always rejected the pellets containing the homogenate. This provided compelling evidence that compounds might be responsible for the feeding chemical deterrence.【证明是海蝴蝶有chemical可以吓退吃HD的鱼】

  Our experiments demonstrated to us that the sea butterfly C. Antarctica synthesizes a deterrent威慑作用的 substance that the
exploits for its own protection. This - the abduction of one species by another - is unprecedented in the annals of behavioral and chemical ecology. Some decorator crabs are chemical ecology known to cover their upper carapace甲壳 with a variety of objects, including the occasional sponge that might harbor defensive chemistry. But this appears to be a nonselective behavior. Crabs haphazardly decorate themselveswith whatever is at hand.

  The association between the sea butterfly and the amphipod falls within the definition of symbiosis共生, where two dissimilar species live together in an

  intimate association.

  Parasitism寄生 implies that one species associates with another to the detriment伤害of one of them. Often, the parasite feeds off the tissues or body fluids of its host.

  Mutualism互利共生 describes a relationship where both species benefit from the association.

  Commensalism共栖 describes organisms that live in benign and neutral中立or良性 association with one another. Neither of the latter two interactions appropriately describes what we have observed, and parasitism寄生 provides only a very weak analogy to it. We feel that a new term might be needed to describe the "antagonistic symbiosis" that seems to describe most accurately this unique interaction.

  parasitism寄生:一个伤害另一个,吃对方组织和体液。

  mutualism互利共生:双方都获利。

  commensalism共栖:中立,互相不干扰。 实际(如果加上下一段的文章):一个获利,另一个间接受害, 若没有下面这段,得看选项怎么说了。

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