英语阅读:名著导读汤姆叔叔的小屋

来源:考试大发布时间:2013-04-16

  小说简介:

  Uncle Tom's Cabin, or Life Among the Lowly is an anti-slavery novel by American author Harriet Beecher Stowe. Published in 1852, the novel had a profound effect on worldwide attitudes toward African-Americans and slavery. In the United States, it is widely thought to have helped intensify the sectional conflict that led to civil war.

  《汤姆叔叔的小屋》是美国作家斯托夫人于1852年发表的一部反奴隶制小说。这部小说中关于非裔美国人与美国奴隶制度的观点曾产生过意义深远的影响,并在某种程度上激化了导致美国内战的地区局部冲突。

  Stowe, a Connecticut-born teacher at the Hartford Female Academy and an active abolitionist, focused the novel on the character of Uncle Tom, a long-suffering Black slave around whose life revolve the stories of other characters—both fellow slaves and slave owners.

  出生于康涅狄格州的斯托夫人,是哈特福德女子学院的一名教师,同时,她也是一位积极的废奴主义者。全书围绕着一位久经苦难的黑奴汤姆叔叔的故事展开,并描述了他与他身边人——有奴隶也有奴隶主——的经历。

  Uncle Tom's Cabin was the best-selling novel, and the second best-selling book {following the Bible}, of the 19th century and is credited with helping to fuel the abolitionist cause in the 1850s. In the first year after it was published, 300,000 copies of the book were sold in the United States alone. The book's impact was so great that when Abraham Lincoln met Stowe at the start of the American Civil War, Lincoln is often quoted as having declared, "So this is the little lady who made this big war."

  《汤姆叔叔的小屋》这部小说是19世纪最畅销的小说,并被认为是刺激1850年代废奴主义兴起的一大原因。在它发表的头一年里,在美国本土便销售出了三十万册。《汤姆叔叔的小屋》对美国社会的影响是如此巨大,以致在南北战争爆发的初期,当林肯接见斯托夫人时,曾说到:“你就是那位引发了一场大战的小妇人。”后来,这句话为众多作家竞相引用。

  The book also helped create a number of common stereotypes about Blacks, many of which endure to this day. These include the affectionate, dark-skinned mammy; the piccaninny stereotype of black children; and the Uncle Tom, or dutiful, long-suffering servant faithful to his white master or mistress. In recent years, the negative associations with Uncle Tom's Cabin have, to an extent, overshadowed the historical impact of the book as a "vital antislavery tool."

  《汤姆叔叔的小屋》以及受其启发而写作出的各种剧本,还促进了大量黑人刻板印象的产生,不少的这些形象在当今都为人们所熟知。譬如慈爱善良的黑人保姆、黑小孩的原型、以及顺从、坚忍并忠心于白人主人的汤姆叔叔。最近几十年来,《汤姆叔叔的小屋》中的这些消极成分,已在一定程度上弱化了这本书作为“重要的反奴隶制工具”的历史作用。

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